BALLAST: They are used in electrically operated gas discharge bulbs. They are obliged to provide the necessary values for bulb form, current intensity, voltage, etc. and to maintain these values for stable operation of the bulb. Fluorescent bulbs, HID (high intensity discharge) bulbs work with the principle of creating an electric current between 2 electrodes. The electrical component responsible for the occurrence of this electrical formation is called Ballast.
Ballasts are divided into two main classes. These:
1- Electromagnetic Ballasts
2- Electronic Ballasts
we can express.
1-) Electromagnetic Ballasts: They are the oldest and traditional ballast types and they are losing their validity rapidly. They are mainly composed of copper coils, silicon steel sheets, and usually have a simple structure with no electronic components.
1-) Cost is lower than electronic ballasts.
2-) They do not produce harmonic.
3-) It is easy to recycle at the end of life.
1-) Low energy efficiency, high losses
2-) Compensation need (Inductive Reactive energy consumed)
3-) They operate in the range of 50-60 Hz, which means that 100-120 times per light bulb turns on and off.
4-) One of the disadvantages of low-frequency work is that they create a "Stroscopic effect". In machines operating on the floors of this frequency or in falling objects, the percentage can create a perception of error and cause the object to be in constant or inverse direction.
5-) They can make vibrations as a result of variable factors.
6-) They form high heat.
7-) They form more weight with the luminaires on which they are mounted.
8-) They can generate electromagnetic fields in multiple use (EMF).
9-) They get lower lumen efficiency than the bulb.
2-) Electronic Ballasts: Electronic ballasts began to appear in the 1980s and rapidly increased their popularity following the coming years. Electronic ballasts can be viewed in two main categories as Hot Ignition and Cold Ignition. Electronic Ballasts operate at high frequencies of 20kHz and over, making negative results in magnetic ballasts invalid.
1-) High energy efficiency, low losses (25% - 30% less energy consumption. Dimmli systems up to 70% savings possible).
2-) No need for compensation and use of additional capacitors.
3-) They work in the range of 20 - 100 kHz. They do not produce a flicker effect in the bulb (which may disturb the face) during operation.
4-) They do not form a bir Storoskobik Effect olarak as an advantage of their high frequency work.
5-) They do not make any sound or vibration in the armature during operation.
6-) They do not create much heat.
7-) They are light in weight. As a result, they do not cause an extra increase in weight when installed.
8-) They do not generate electromagnetic fields. (EMF)
9-) The lumen yield from the bulb is higher due to its high efficiency.
10-) Hot-ignition types significantly prolong the life of the bulb.
11-) They do not require a starter change.
12-) Service costs are low.
13-) They are not affected by fluctuations in the water and provide stable light output.
14-) "Hormonic filters" of Electronic Ballasts are available in modules for use in systems with sensitive devices.
1-) High cost
2-) Failure rates are higher due to complex electronic structures. They are affected by sudden voltage changes. Researches show that most of the failures of electronic ballasts have failed in the first 6 months of use and fail over a period of 10 years.
3-) Because they contain much more material than magnetic ballasts, they are difficult to separate and difficult to recycle.
4-) As a result of their work at high frequency, they can create an interfrence or radio frequency with some electronic devices.
5-) Even if the earth line is small, it may lose its current. This can cause some negative consequences when operated with sensitive systems.
6-) They can create a etkil Hormonic çalış in the network where they are connected and create a ini Hormonic 6- and cause the operation of sensitive electronic devices on the same network in a negative way and cause them to fail or stop working.
DIMMABLE ELECTRONIC BALASSES
The most efficient versions of electronic ballasts are dimmable ballasts. This type of ballast provides significant energy savings despite high costs
Amorti can in a short time. Dimmable ballasts perform the function of changing the light level by changing the frequency. The control panels can be supplied by the ballast manufacturers by determining the need of lighting together with auxiliary sensors such as specially developed presence sensors and light level sensors in the use of these ballasts. units. In this way, flexible programmable lighting systems can be created. Dimmable ballasts can be varied according to the technologies and standards used in their interior. The main categorization can be explained as Analog and Digital.
1.) 1-10V Dimmable Ballast: Can be controlled with a special dimmer, there is no addressing feature. In use with contactors, a maximum of 50 ballasts can be controlled with a single dimmer. One of the most widely used control methods. No signal cable or pole, preventing incorrect connection.
2.) DALI (Digital Adressable Lighting Interface): With the addressing feature, each ballast / armature can be controlled by computer or special control panels regardless of the other. Supported by all important ballast manufacturers is a control protocol. They work through digital signals.
3.) SwitchDIMM: They do not require an additional control unit, they can be controlled simply by using spring-loaded switches. They do not have addressing features. Therefore, they are not suitable for complex control demands. They are also very useful for ease of installation.
4.) DSI (Digital Serial Interface): It can work with control systems and accepts data transfer as digital. It is not a common system that can be controlled by a computer or control panel. Compared with other control systems